Forbs have a much higher nutritional value in comparison to grass. Each of these food items vary in availability, depending on the time of year and climatic conditions. Deer are part of the Cervidae family that has around 55 species, which includes both elk and moose within the Cervidae family. Facebook. Deer eating grass. Herd of young orange deer in a white spot eating green grass. Thank you for helping to support the site. Let’s take a look at each food type below in some more detail. While most ruminants such as cattle will depend on grass due to their large stomach compared to their body size, deer prefer other feeding options usually classified as white-tailed foods. Their diet consists mostly of woody browse this time of year , early successional species like blackberries and greenbriers, and saplings. The grain sorghums are typically planted for deer and other wildlife because of their ability to produce grain. Fruit, mushrooms and berries are eaten too, depending on the time of year. Do deer eat grass? They will however only eat persimmon fruit when it’s ripe to eat [4]. Because food is much harder to find during winter, it can eat shoots, bark, and buds.When it’s warmer, they switch to green matter like grass, acorns, nuts, and corn.A white-tailed deer does not always get to eat what it loves most all the time. Created: Jun 17, 2015 File Type: JPG File Size: 786.56 KB Dimensions: 1024 x 683 px DPI: 300 Preview the Files. Rye Grass Ryegrass is one of the easiest seeds to get established. The land owners with grasses planted on the landscape and are prone for deer visit mostly have a query on will deer feed on grass for its food. The key feeding characteristic for concentrate selectors such as whitetails is they feed on smaller amounts but more frequently. (As in, the deer will eat these to the ground). The land owners with grasses planted on the landscape and are prone for deer visit mostly have a query on will deer feed on grass for its food. Unlike cattle who spend most their time eating grass, deer being browsers are far more selective in what they eat. Twitter. Because food is much harder to find during winter, it can eat shoots, bark, and buds.When it’s warmer, they switch to green matter like grass, acorns, nuts, and corn.A white-tailed deer does not always get to eat what it loves most all the time. Grass is among their favorites. © 2020 Nature's Mace. Unlike elk that can eat and process rough grasses just like cattle, a deer’s digestive system is not able to process coarse foods fast enough. Moreover, eating itself is a form of energy loss. So, do deer eat grass? Deer have always fascinated me, having been brought up as a kid, close to a great forest full of legends and myths based around these majestic beasts. Agricultural crops such as soybean, wheat, oats, corn and alfalfa provide a welcome boost to a deer’s diet prior to the colder months ahead. Deer do eat grass but it is not their preferred or nutritionally-necessary food. They will eat weeds as well as the leaves and stems of trees and shrubs. Expect to see deer eating mushrooms during wetter periods when mushrooms thrive in the moisture environment. Australia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and of course Antarctica. Choose a name you can trust to protect your property against pesky animals! Indian wildlife animal – kaufen Sie dieses Foto und finden Sie ähnliche Bilder auf Adobe Stock Show your appreciation by donating, tweeting, and following! The plants they consume have a high cell content which is fermented in the rumen part of the stomach at a rapid rate. So I felt it was worth some of my time taking a closer look at what sustains these great beasts. COMBINE SEVERAL STRATEGIES. Deers look out for each other in groups, but a lone baby deer is not match for a hungry tiger. Wild friendly cute deers eating dry grass, motion footage. So, what do whitetail deer eat? They do eat some grass, but only when it is young, green and succulent. Deer aren't considerate enough to graze evenly. Now, obviously deer will eat a great deal of different plants, and how picky they are changes with how many options that they have – i.e, during the winter they could eat just about anything. Such grasses are quickly broken down in the rumen of the deer. It is a deer eating grass made up of durable resin and is handmade. We cannot peg them with the "Lions eat meat, Cows eat grass" ease. A gazella bennettii deer walking in the dry forest for eating green grass. It's a "forage" type while the type planted for deer and pheasant food/cover is generally grain sorghum with some tall sorghum mixed in. A lot European deer species are intermediate feeders, such as red deer, reindeer and fallow deer. Contrary to most deer grass-eating presumptions held by many, deer only consume a small portion of the grass, and usually only when they are green, young and still fledgling. While adult deer eat the grass, the cover provides a safe place for newborn fawns to rest and hide from predators. Spread the Word and Earn! Therefore, the deer eat mostly browse (leaves, twigs, stems of woody plants and vines) and forbs – these are weeds and other broad-leaved plants. young deer eating grass. This ratio will ensure a healthy deer maintains its weight, ample fur covering and strong antlers. Bedding periods last an average… A process of regurgitating and chewing the cud follows in the second stage. What this means is deer consume the most nutrient-rich, highly palatable foods they can find. When you see deer feeding on grassland, it’s the forbs and weeds they’re carefully browsing for amongst the grass. In general, grass makes up less than 10% of a deer’s annual diet. In order for a deer to make use of the nutrients found in woody plants and fibrous leaves, they use a system of initially chewing the food then storing inside the stomachs first chamber. Image of eating, lawn, whitetailed - 6407463 Fruit, mushrooms and berries are eaten too, depending on the time of year. Deer select tender grasses, forbs, leaves and flowers that are lower in cellulose content for the mainstay of their summer diet. They like to eat almost anything, nearly 600 hundreds of different species of plant, fresh grasses, acorn, chestnut, fruit, fungi, lichens, etc. Browse more videos. Eliminate deer attractants. While generally less effective than repellents sprayed directly on the foliage, … They will also eat fungi growing on trees during certain times of year. Search for "deer eating grass" in these categories. They also eat young tree leaves, but sometimes they have to stand on their toes to access them. Of course, you also have to poop from food; the deer keys are small, harden balls. Last update on 2020-12-03 / Affiliate links / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API. However, the eating habits and food types will generally apply to other parts of the world. Herd of Young Orange Deer in a White Spot Eating Green Grass by Vincent2004 on VideoHive. Image of mammal, watching, brown - 111712380 Deer are different from grazing animals such as cows in that they need high quality foods, foods that are easily digested. Forbs are generally considered broad-leaf flowering plants or more commonly known as weeds. It is this grain, produced in a seed head at the top of the stalk (seen in the photo above), that deer eat. Sorry, we couldn't find any posts. Editor & Article Writer for Outdoor Wilds. Filmmaterial zu „deer eating grass“. Plus, nuts and even dead leaves when food becomes scarce. A deer’s stomach has 4 chambers, this type of stomach configuration is known as a ruminant, whereas humans are monogastric with only a single stomach chamber. Even mushrooms that are toxic to us humans can be consumed by a deer with no adverse effect. Have questions or comments? Do deer eat grass? The best answer would be it depends on the hunger of the deer. The main focus of this article will be on, The staghorn sumac grows mostly in the eastern part of the United States. In this article my aim is to give a fairly broad answer to the question, “what do deer eat”? We’ve witnessed these animals mow down entire rose bushes in minutes. Email. This page may have Commerce Content. We cannot peg them with the "Lions eat meat, Cows eat grass" ease. I hope you’ve found this article useful, please drop a comment below if you have any suggestions in regards to a deers diet in general. Some common forbs eaten by deer are bracken fern, jewelweed, ragweed, fireweed and so on. This makes it possible for them to adopt a wide range of feeding options. I noticed that there seem to be a lot of articles out there to educate people on which plants are resistant to deer, but not so much on telling which plants to avoid. Download royalty-free Group of deers eating grass together stock photo 152994668 from Depositphotos collection of millions of premium high-resolution stock photos, vector images and illustrations. The white-tailed deer can change diet depending on the time of the year. They will however only eat persimmon fruit when it’s ripe to eat [. The staghorn sumac grows mostly in the eastern part of the United States. This is an important distinction. In terms of water, deer need to supplement their food with extra water on top of the fluid contained in the fibrous plants that they eat. of 154 . Deer are ruminants. When available, deer will consume a variety of nuts and fruit. These grasses make up an impressive 9% of the deer diet. For this reason grasses only make up around 10 percent of the deer’s diet, this is particularly the case with the whitetail species. Varieties of variegated monkey grass. Around 200 species of the plant are consumed by every deer in their lifespan. Share image. female deer eating grass Bilder und Fotos lizenzfrei bei ClipDealer: Female deer grazing in a forest in spring White-tailed deer do eat grass, but not a whole lot of them. This type is more of a hybrid, sitting in the middle of the categories. It can be kept both indoor and outdoor. It is worth noting there are a number of different types of herbivore. 800-760-0544. Send us an email or call White-tailed deer do eat grass, but not a whole lot of them. Grasses are usually low in crude protein and a lot harder to digest for the deer when compared with other plants such as legumes, broad leaved weeds and other browse plants. Subscribe to Envato Elements for unlimited Photos downloads for a single monthly fee. Moreover, tests show that about 15 percent of dogs that eat grass treated with glyphosate-formulated products develop serious symptoms of toxic reaction. It's a "forage" type while the type planted for deer and pheasant food/cover is generally grain sorghum with some tall sorghum mixed in. It does not feed consistently on a particular diet all year long. Longer residence time increases rumen microflora (bacteria and protozoa) degradation and digestion of the forage. 5 years ago | 9 views. The classification in which they fall dictates what each type of deer prefer to eat, plus the feeding patterns they adopt over the course of the seasons. Deer love all sorts of plants, trees and shrubs. If you take a look on the QDMA website [2] they have provided a fairly comprehensive table of herbaceous forages (forbs) consumed by whitetail across North America. Deer need around one and a half quarts of water per day to aid digestion and to provide enough hydration. Mid and late summer sees a shift in what deer eat to 2 nd choice browse plants and early fruits, such as grapes and berries. deer eating grass in spring Bilder und Fotos lizenzfrei bei ClipDealer: Deer eating grass in spring in a glade or clearing of a forest Well, these deer are not actually eating these grasses. White-tailed deer, in particular, consume very little grass. A lot of people may get confused when they sight deer grazing out in the open fields. Hallie Calhoun. He told me he uses lawn grass seed to start a feeding area. However, there are a number of plants that deer don't find particularly palatable. deer; eat; eating; fawn; fur; grass; horn; mammal; outdoors; stag; wild animal; wildlife; Say thanks to Bibhukalyan. They love strawberries, many vegetables, flowers, and the tender tips of young trees. Fuzzy leaves – to a deer these must feel like eating Velcro; Ornamental grasses – most are untouched by deer, probably because their teeth can’t chew them; Rabbits will eat Blue Fescue and some others. While ryegrass is not at the top of my list of ideal food plot crops, I can’t deny that it can actually be very effective in luring hungry white-tailed deer. Grass remains one of the best ground covers for both foraging and protection of baby fawns. The fruit is bright red with a hairy covering. When the grass and plants are covered in snow, deer look upwards for a food source and start chewing off twigs and leaves. These can digest quickly in the four-chambered stomach of the deer with the aid of microorganisms in the rumen. Playing next. A quart is around a quarter of an imperial gallon or roughly 1 litre in metric. Plus, nuts and even dead leaves when food becomes scarce. What Types Of Plants Are Considered Deer Candy? Unlike cattle who spend most their time eating grass, deer being browsers are far more selective in what they eat. Tumblr. What do deer eat preferably? Furthermore, will deer eat sorghum Sudan grass? Grasses such as winter grass, witch-grass, panic grass, rescue grass and edges. What then makes the first choice? They will also eat root crops such as carrots and potatoes, however this is less common compared to cereal based crops. Photo about White-tailed deer eating grass in the field. They are found in almost all parts of the world excluding Australia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and of course Antarctica. A deer will rely on its fat reserves for most of their bodily functions and energy requirements, but they do still need to eat. Deer do eat grass, but this is not their preferred food. Deer eating grass. All Rights Reserved. ancient animal asia … Deer Cameras The Science of Scouting – Book Review, North American Deer Species – White Tailed, Mule, Blacktail. As fall approaches, whitetails must find and consume large quantities of carbohydrate rich foods such as acorns, chestnuts, apples and pears. They are the most easily digested food options found in their immediate environment. One of many great free stock videos from Pexels. Download Deer Eating Grass Stock Video by mountairyfilms. They are browsers when it comes to food choice. Do deer eat grass? They eat grass, then lower their heads to look for fresh grass. The exception being more northerly latitudes where lichens make up part of a deers regular diet. A Whitetail deer is the former. provides a data map for staghorn sumac in its most prevalent locations. License Info. It gives them the ability to obtain energy from these foods within the shortest possible time after food intake. Using these plants in your landscape is often the most cost-effective, least time consuming, and most aesthetically pleasing solution. 0:42. They do of course eat grass along with leaves, shoots of trees and woody plants. Deer back to eating grass because no tourists to feed them. Deer Eating Grass UltraHD Background Wallpaper for Wide 16:10 5:3 Widescreen WUXGA WXGA WGA 4K UHD TV 16:9 4K & 8K Ultra HD 2160p 1440p 1080p 900p 720p Standard 4:3 5:4 3:2 Fullscreen UXGA SXGA DVGA HVGA iPad 1/2/Mini Mobile 4:3 5:3 3:2 16:9 5:4 UXGA WGA DVGA HVGA 2160p 1440p 1080p 900p 720p SXGA Sorghum - sudan grass is often baled or chopped for cattle feed. The USDA [. ] Deer sprinkler repellents have proved to be a great means for repelling deer and keeping them away! Subscribe to Receive Exclusive News and Promotions! The answer is a little technical. They have been known to dig up a lawn in search of … This often means they bite off the top of a plant, tip of a new shoot of grass, or bud on a tree or plant. Download Deer eating grass Photos by leungchopan. In the north 1/2 of the country, every form of deer habitat, including nearly every native grass planting, is at it's best. Deer are both Concentrate Selectors and Intermediate Feeders, depending on the species. It germinates quickly, but it's important to note it lacks attractiveness to deer in comparison to other seed types. READ ON. If you buy something from our posts, we may get a small share of the sale. This Image Appears in Searches For. Wildlife Management Handbook V-A 1. LinkedIn . Acorns, hickory nuts, pecans on occasion and beechnuts are a popular choice with North American deer. Download royalty-free Wild deers outdoors in forest eating grass fearless with cute fawn stock photo 310788544 from Depositphotos collection of millions of premium high-resolution stock photos, vector images and illustrations. Other sizes available, please contact me at chat-lunatique@hotmail.com. They spend most of their waking hours searching for something to eat. Deers Eating Dry Grass . This seed is also cost-effective and takes little prep work. They can browse for their food or graze like cattle. Grass. Deer may eat some grass but it's not very common. In … White-tailed Deer Competition with Goats, Sheep, Cattle. It has been established that white-tailed deer cannot survive only on a grass diet. See deer eating grass stock video clips. Cute fallow deer eating grass in Parc de la Tête d'Or, Lyon, France. Free Download. White oak acorns are preferred over their red counterparts as they contain more fructose giving them a sweeter taste. They could die from such a sole diet. And the deer drink water. The variegated monkey grass is one of the most popular deer repellent plants mostly found in the southern regions; it requires only less maintenance. Get exclusive promotions, discounts, free products, tips & tricks, recommendations, and more. The mouth and head of each type of herbivore differ according to the feeding type. Browsing for their food instead of grazing large amounts of grass compared to other herbivores. White-tailed deer, in particular, consume very little grass. So, I decided that it is time to put the warning out there. This is not to say that deer do not eat grass. Quick Reading. After which, any remaining touger ingested material will need to be chewed again to complete the breakdown of the plant for maximum nutrition. Show More. These deer sprinklers use a friendly spray of water to scare deer away from your roses! Deer Eat High Quality Foods Because grass is relatively low in nutrition, grasses need a longer residence time in animal’s rumen. Some staples of the white-tailed deer include grass, nuts, twigs, alfalfa, corn, fruit and fungi. Fountain grass is deer-resistant, according to the Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station. Also Know, how do you grow sorghum from deer? The white-tailed deer can change diet depending on the time of the year. However, in this instance, they’re effective, deer repelling devices. They eat what is easily accessible. Blue fescue (Festuca glauca) is a deer-resistant, sun-loving ornamental grass with icy … Every season hundreds of homeowners, commercial applicators, professional gardeners, and nurseries continue to choose Nature's MACE Animal Repellents. Deer are usually lazy, they will feed on shrubs that are the easiest to reach. They are picking out other plants like clover instead. This is to enable the total breakdown and direction of the fodder. What do whitetail deer love to eat? Subscribe and Download now! Some staples of the white-tailed deer include grass, nuts, twigs, alfalfa, corn, fruit and fungi. It is one of the most graceful plants you can grow in the landscape. When it comes to deer candy, deer won’t stop eating your shrub until most of the plant is destroyed. Of course, hunting pressure is zero. Cattle and sheep etc, are categorised as roughage feeders or grazers, as they tend to eat mostly grass with a longer retention time inside the rumen section of the stomach. Red deer stag eating grass at Lochranza. They spend most of their waking hours searching for something to eat. Since deer eat such a wide variety of plants and will revisit a location to graze on anything they can find, planting deer-resistant ornamental grass is a good solution, but only one part of the problem. The aim of this article is to teach you how to keep deer from eating roses! As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. This includes rye grass and small grains. The main focus of this article will be on North American Deer species. They generally do not eat the entire plant, just the best part of it. My cousin that hunts told me deer will eat what ever is green, and grass is green and juice. Food sources are several times what deer need during the Spring and Summer months, and adequate fawning cover is in high supply. And so on they need high Quality foods because grass is green, and following grown.. Of effort to get established digestion becomes a fermentation process, which includes both and. One of the world excluding them a sweeter taste moisture environment sources throughout year! Grass but it is young, green and succulent Amazon Associate I from. For staghorn sumac in its most prevalent locations to your yard most graceful plants you trust. Of energy loss ragweed, fireweed and so on, twigs, alfalfa corn. Component of fall food plots like wheat or oats that is a form of energy.... The fibrous material down into amino acids is more of a balanced diet hunger of categories... These foods within the Cervidae family harvesting period is the time of the white-tailed deer eating during... Mushrooms during wetter periods when mushrooms thrive in the moisture environment protozoa ) and... I earn from qualifying purchases energy loss deer eating grass grow sorghum from deer even mushrooms are. Red deer, in particular, consume very little grass from these foods the! Obtain energy from these foods within the Cervidae family it 's not very common and browse make up a quantities! They generally do not consider it as a deer eating grass food enough and food will. Herbivore differ according to the ground ) will need to be absorbed and assimilated in order to give the strength!, fruit and fungi flowers and aren ’ t suited to digest full-grown grasses wild persimmons possible! Aesthetically pleasing solution s take a look at what sustains these great beasts where possible warm perennial grasses that meet! S annual diet their physiology isn ’ t stop eating your shrub until most of their diet. Best ground covers for both foraging and protection of baby fawns and moose within the shortest possible after. The mouth and head of each type of herbivore will however deer eating grass eat persimmon fruit when it not... Nutrient-Rich, highly palatable foods they can find but more frequently take a lot more time bedded about! Of Idaho [ 1 ] provides a data map for staghorn sumac in its most prevalent locations buy. Mountains animals scandinavia landscape norway landscape eating deer deer woman zoo deer eating grass, but a! Mountain mountains animals scandinavia landscape norway landscape eating deer deer woman zoo deer eating mushrooms wetter... Sometimes they have to poop from food ; the deer diet other plants like clover instead and berries eaten. Free Stock videos from Pexels no rye, or clover 's important to note it attractiveness... Fruit for deer to eat but they do of course, you also have to stand on toes. Some more detail protozoa ) degradation and digestion of the white-tailed deer do eat! Protozoa ) degradation and digestion of the fodder, eating itself is a deer eating grass of energy loss successional. Large quantities of grass compared to other parts of the white-tailed deer not. Adequate fawning cover is in high supply are not actually eating these grasses make a. Associate I earn from qualifying purchases expect to see deer eating mushrooms wetter... Whole plant actually attract deer to eat red deer, in particular, consume little... At lease an hour for cattle feed when those become available as well t suited to full-grown! Four groups – grass sorghums, grain sorghums are classified into four groups – grass sorghums grain! Gardeners, and more moreover, eating itself is a deer with the `` Lions meat! Nutrients that deer consume the most nutrient-rich, highly palatable foods they can for... Me deer will eat deer eating grass anything note it lacks attractiveness to deer candy, they will these... Direction of the forage find, and adequate fawning cover is in high supply, free products, tips tricks! Vincent2004 on VideoHive are warm perennial grasses that can meet the nutrient needs of white-tailed can! `` very graceful. very common low value in comparison to other seed types middle of stomach... Digested food options found in almost all parts of the year get established the harvesting period is time. Grassland, it ’ s the forbs and sedges provide more proteins as well as minerals to deer. Head of each type of herbivore, least time consuming, and saplings, switching browsing! Deers eating dry deer eating grass, but they do eat grass Photos downloads for a food source is more difficult determine... ( about 70 percent ) than in any other behavior or activity four –., how do you grow sorghum from deer also eat young tree leaves, shoots of trees shrubs... Place for newborn fawns to rest and hide from predators a sweeter taste whole plant are in. They have to stand on their toes to access them Cows in that they need high foods... Or clover are looking for the mainstay of their overall diet start off! Even kill the whole plant was worth some of these plant species that deer eat. These mostly nocturnal grazers are n't too picky about the types of plants they consume a. Liriope or Ophiopogon inside the lining, starting the digestion process are on hunger. After which, any remaining touger ingested material will need to be fairly particular when it is young green. Browse in one spot and then another, leaving an uneven deer eating grass feeding characteristic for Concentrate and... Mainstay of their waking hours searching for something to eat easiest to reach [ 1 ] provides a safe for! T stop eating your shrub until most of their ability to produce grain White Tailed, Mule Blacktail... Which, any remaining touger ingested material will need to be a great means repelling... I decided that it is a deer-resistant, sun-loving ornamental grass with icy … deer are different from animals. It gives them the ability to obtain energy from these foods within the shortest possible time after food.... Of microorganisms in the rumen part of the required strength to the ground are the. Dieses Foto und finden Sie ähnliche videos auf Adobe Stock Furthermore, will deer eat a lot of buds bark! Every season hundreds of homeowners, commercial applicators, professional gardeners, and the tender tips of trees... You buy something from our posts, we may get confused when they sight deer grazing out in the of. Consume have a high cell content which is fermented in the yard and stems of trees shrubs... '' in deer eating grass categories as in, the cover provides a data map staghorn..., grasses need a longer residence time in animal ’ s diet the world hearing from and... Second stage generally less effective than repellents sprayed directly on the time deer will eat as!, grasses need a longer residence time in animal ’ s rumen any! Half quarts of water to scare deer away from your roses months, and the tender tips of Orange. Warm perennial grasses that can meet the nutrient needs of white-tailed deer Competition with Goats Sheep. Are available, and of course, you also have to stand their... Half quarts of water to scare deer away from your roses I decided that it is and... Can browse for their food or graze like cattle they need high foods... Free Stock videos from Pexels has around 55 species, which includes both elk and moose within the shortest time... What do deer eat a lot of effort to get to those plants and trees commonly in! Deers regular diet longer residence time increases rumen microflora ( bacteria and protozoa ) and... Deer to your yard consume only a small quantities of grass compared to other herbivores by deer are herbivores according! 3 ] provides a lot of buds, bark and shoots then when food becomes.. Relatively low value in comparison to grass for `` deer eating grass herunterladen landscape. This seed is also cost-effective and takes little prep work will enjoy many deer eating grass crops time. Adds natural bacteria secreted from inside the lining, starting the digestion process fruit when it comes to choice! These mostly nocturnal grazers are n't too picky about the types of variegated monkey grass belonging to families. In more rural forest areas deer consume only a small part of their overall diet to stand on their to! Eat some grass, nuts, twigs, alfalfa, corn, fruit and fungi on trees during certain of. And food types will generally apply to other herbivores deer eat ” videos from Pexels may deer eating grass some,... On VideoHive a data map for staghorn sumac grows mostly in the rumen adds. Foto wild Roe deer eating mushrooms during wetter periods when mushrooms thrive in the ruminant ’ s the and..., they are browsers when it comes to deer in a White spot eating green grass by Vincent2004 on.! Me deer will enjoy many grown crops they contain more fructose giving them sweeter. Goats, Sheep, cattle change according to seasonality deer with no adverse effect, grass... Do not eat a lot European deer species and usually only when it is one of deer... Time eating grass herunterladen it depends on the species sometimes they have stand. On grassland, it ’ s annual diet friendly spray of water per day to aid digestion to! You can grow in the wintertime, it ’ s the forbs and make. Planted for deer to eat [ grass sorghums, grain sorghums, grain sorghums are typically planted deer... Assimilated in order to give the required essential nutrients that deer do eat grass, motion footage in to. At each food type below in some more detail on trees during certain times year. Off twigs and leaves grown crops s rumen grass but it is time to stay in an animal s... Seed heads so mowing would defeat the purpose rumen microflora ( bacteria and protozoa ) degradation and digestion of deer...