Cuttlebone, also known as cuttlefish bone, provides natural calcium and minerals for your bird. Cuttlebone, cal carb etc are very slow releasers, add that to weekly water changes and they really dont do much. Not just for polishing jewelry, but also teeth! Even the developing embryo inside the egg needs calcium, or it might hatch with all sorts of irreparable problems. The cuttlefish which is where the bone comes from is a pretty interesting fish. The only thing is that you do need to treat them a little bit to remove the excess salt. Chia Seeds: How Do They Benefit My Pet Bird? Companion birds either take to a cuttlebone or they don't. You’ll find it in the bird section at most pet stores, often with a (metal) clip to attach it to the cage bars. When a cuttlefish dies, this shell rises to the surface of the water and washes up on the beach. You might be able to go to the fish market, buy yourself some cuttlefish to cook up and save the bones. The stomach has two sections one of which produces the necessary digestive juices and enzymes which soak the food which is then passed to the gizzard. A cuttlebone is actually the internal skeleton of a cuttlefish (where its name comes from). And there is no way to predict which way your bird is going to go with a cuttlebone. And it seems to be a standard accessory in bird cages everywhere. It is an internal shell of a cuttlefish. This component plays a part in many internal processes, like a healthy skeleton, normal motor function and blood clotting. It contains other trace elements and minerals. It is found all over the world, hence why cuttlebone is pretty easy to get your hands on. Although its cons might outweigh its pros for larger parrot species, I like it for smaller birds because: Do make sure you remove the cuttlebone once the bird(s) reach the hard backside to prevent them hurting themselves. These marine molluscs are better known as cuttlefish. They are extremely popular among bird owners. A cuttlebone is not a bone, but rather the internal shell of the Cuttlefish, a small, squid-like cephalopod. In the wild, these reptiles naturally absorb calcium by consuming the shells of snails that they come across. Elegant cuttlefish – (Sepia elegans) – Found offshore in southern British waters. Lifespan of a lovebird: How long do lovebirds live? The cuttlebone is a magnificent dietary supplement for turtles and tortoises, especially when they are growing.The composition of turtles' shell and bones requires an adequate supply of calcium, which the cuttlebone can provide. You won't find any cuttlefish in the United States, but they are quite common swimming in the English Channel. Gas inside these chambers allows this social and intelligent species to control its buoyancy. They are made of aragonite, which is a calcium compound, and are given to chinchillas with calcium deficiency. But what is a cuttlebone, where does it come from and why are they in those bird cages? A cuttlebone is not a bone, but rather the internal shell of the Cuttlefish, a small, squid-like cephalopod. I have two budgies, and one of them uses his cuttlebone. I'm worried that her beak will become too long 4 her to eat. 1 or 5 lbs of Cuttlebones from Prevue Pets in Medium or Large size. Their main diet preferences are crab and shrimp, yet they have been known to eat fish as well. Feeding Cuttlebone to Your Bird. Cuttlebones are not actually bones, but rather the internal shell from the cuttlefish, a member of the cephalopod family of sea creatures. Size Guide: 1 piece (30G to 40g). Cuttlebones are a bone- or shell-like structure found in cuttlefish, a kind of cephalopod. You'll find, however, that unless you attach it somewhere convenient for them, they might not make the effort to go to it for a grinding session. Cuttlebone perches come in different sizes, and you can order the cuttlebone perches from your local pet shop or online. to the early part of the 4th-century a.d. It normally comes with a set of clips that allows you to attach it to the side of the cage. How effective is cuttlebone at reducing the length of my bird’s beak? Pulverized cuttlebone was used in toothpaste in the past. The organogenesis and the final structure of the cephalopod eye fundamentally differ from those of vertebrates such as humans. I realize that people eat cuttlefish, but there is not very much information about the companies that make cuttlebone … From now on " everything " is for free !! Please help me!!! The polishing advantages are also pretty minimal for their large beaks. Cuttlefish have eight arms and two tentacles and are found in oceans all over the world. The cuttlebone is a lightweight, oblong, chalky object that is mainly composed of calcium making it an ideal way to supplement a birds' calcium intake. no more money expenditure on cuttlebones and cuttlebone holders at pet stores usually cuttlebones comes with metal thing holding it to the bird cage , this is not praticable and many occasions the metal gets rusted . These shells, which are sometimes called sea biscuits, are used for our birds as … Cuttlebone is about 85% calcium, so it is an ideal way of increasing your bird's calcium levels. It can be used as a mold in jewelry making, as it’s able to withstand very high temperatures. Also, keeps your pet occupied and prevents boredom. The pigment from this ink was used to manufacture writing ink during the Greco-Roman period in history from the 1st-century b.c. In the Cuttlefish, the cuttlebone is filled with gasses and helps control the fish's buoyancy in the water. It still provides some extra calcium, which is great. | Diet & nutrition. Cuttlefish Bone is a great treat that provides calcium and keeps your bird's beak trim. Humans have been using cuttlebones for a long time. High-quality cuttlefish bone imported from Thailand. All about parrot food... Calcium block: What is it and does your... What do parakeets eat? All about parakeet talking. Cuttlebone is not a bone of an animal. You can also offer a calcium block and/or cuttlebone. The cuttlefish does not have any blind spot as the position of the optic nerve is behind the retina. It is more closely related to the snail than to fish and it is an absolute master at being a stealthy little creature. Calcium for Cockatiels in Various Forms. If you keep turtles or tortoises, you can also offer cuttlebone to them. It can be used as a polishing agent. Cuttlefish Bone (Cuttlebone) New Online Only bulk packs available! Find out all about cuttlebone for parrots and whether your parrot cage should contain one. Cuttlebone is the calcareous internal shell of a cuttlefish. These are recommended for caged birds. Full parakeet diet guide. They might be a bit wary at first, but they might be less bothered by the introduction of this calcium source if you ensure it is in very small particles. You can use that or you can always use a plastic tie wrap to attach it. These are flavored and contain additional vitamins; some are dyed with food coloring. They float, so once a dead cuttlefish has decayed, the internal shell washes up. All of the previous begs the question: does your parrot absolutely need a cuttlebone in its cage? However, in the past and even today, the material also serves other purposes. All this is not really necessary and a natural cuttlebone works just as well. Here in india we get mostly of natural cuttlebone as it just comes outoff from the cuttle fish (uncleaned and untrimmed) and everyone here feed there birds as it is without any prior cleaning and no one so far had any problems. But what is cuttlebone? Did you know? Some families use a mortar and pestle to grind it up and sprinkle it onto their food. The Spruce Pets uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. A cuttlebone is not a bone, but rather the internal shell of the Cuttlefish, a small, squid-like cephalopod. No, it’s not essential. You’ll find it in the bird section at most pet stores, often with a (metal) clip to attach it to the cage bars. While for years people have harvested and used cuttlebones for various purposes, the most widely recognized use of the cuttlebone is as a supplement and exercise toy for birds. Affix your budgies' cuttlebone inside the cage next to … The bone was perfect for this use as the cuttlebone is lightweight and easily carved and yet impervious to the heat of the precious metals. A typical small piece is 16 L x 7 W x 2 cm H (approx) Some also like to boil their cuttlebone, although I’m not sure what the effect of that would be on the trace elements that are part of what makes the bone so beneficial. What do parrots eat? Cuttlefish Bone (Cuttlebone) New Online Only bulk packs available! The major component of cuttlebone is calcium carbonate, making up 85 percent. Cuttlefish bones or cuttlebones are the internal calcareous or calcium-rich shell of the cuttlefish. You can actually find cuttlebones on the beach in some places. That is if your bird takes any interest in it. Alyson is a freelance writer with more than 10 years of experience working professionally with birds, and over 3 years as a veterinary technician. None more important than Calcium. It does help with beak polishing and beak shortening for the small species. Common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) – is locally common off the coasts of South and South West England and Wales. Does your parrot need it to stay healthy? A cuttlebone helps make the cage better looking as adding another object and another texture will make your bird healthy and happy. - Psittacology, What do cockatiels eat? You could also just break off bits of the cuttlebone and offer it to them sprinkled on top of their food. The cuttlefish which is where the bone comes from is a pretty interesting fish. All about budgie lifespan. Some other uses were found for this interesting little creature's internal structure. This comes in handy for us, because just like humans, parrots need calcium in their diet to stay healthy. Also, keeps your pet occupied and prevents boredom. From the crop food goes into the stomach where it finally begins to get digested. | List of fruit... Calcium block: What is it and does your parrot need it? As mentioned earlier it makes a great polishing material and that has uses in the bird world. By using The Spruce Pets, you accept our, A Cuttlebone Helps a Bird Groom Its Beak While Providing Calcium. Cuttlebone comes from the Cuttlefish which has a shell inside its mantle called a cuttlebone. They are all that remains after a cuttlefish has been attacked and eaten. Asked what beach the cuttlebone comes from, before you buy it, and feed it to your precious birds and reptiles. | Diet & nutrition - Psittacology, Caring for a cockatiel | Nymphicus hollandicus - Psittacology, How long does a budgie live? Can parakeets eat fruit? . In the Cuttlefish, the cuttlebone is filled with gasses and helps control the fish’s buoyancy in the water. Unlike the hard, firm bones you are probably thinking of, cuttlebones are softer and chalkier. This chargrilled recipe sounds pretty good to me. This is our cheaper and lower quality cuttlefish bone. Tip: In some countries, cuttlefish is eaten. If not, then they can leave it alone. A design can be carved in the bone and the molten metal can then be poured into that. Cuttlebone is the internal shell of the cuttlefish. You can try putting the bone on the floor rather than clipped to the cage bars: some parrots love pushing it around while nibbling at it. They prefer to eat small brine, shrimp, fish, crab, and worms. If you feed a proper diet then your bird doesn’t usually need additional calcium anyway, unless it’s breeding. Been there done that. * You will be getting a minimum of 100g of broken cuttlefish bone, Jewelers who made castings used the bone as a way of creating jewelry by caring a pattern into the bone and pouring molten gold or silver into the design. Now that we know what cuttlebone is made of, let’s go into its uses for parrot owners. Cuttlebone perches may be more abundant in size or smaller in size. Thats why i chose the liquid. This texture can also offer benefits to parrots as it is helpful in wearing down overgrown beaks. Cuttlebone normally comes with a set of clips to attach to the side of the cage. As cuttlebone perches are rich in nutrients, they also provide your Quaker parrots with the beak trimming and nail trimming as well. A good wash, some rinsing and drying in the sun is probably advisable. Try feeding high-calcium foods like kale and offering foods that […], […] Don’t forget to also have a cuttlebone or calcium block available for your […], […] In addition to all this, don’t forget to also provide your cockatiel with multiple sources of fresh, clean water. Caring for a cockatiel | Nymphicus hollandicus, Indian ringneck life span & what influences it, Can parakeets talk? And cuttlebone … When cuttlebone does get crushed by pressure or by a predator's bite, it has to be able to absorb a lot of energy. Still, make sure your bird always has cuttlebone and a calcium block available. This is because, at one time, the ink that this fish secretes was used just for that very purpose. A cuttlebone is not a bone, but rather the internal shell of the Cuttlefish, a small, squid-like cephalopod. The pupil of … Interestingly enough, they have what has been called a "parrot-like beak.". A parrot scraping away at a cuttlebone unknowingly polishes and keeps its beak short at the same time! It can be used to carve artistic pieces into and was previously pretty widely used for this purpose. As mentioned above, cuttlebone consists almost entirely of calcium carbonate (around 85%, in fact). It is simply an excellent source of calcium, and these animals can benefit from the rich calcium contained in the cuttlebone.Cuttlebones have a grainy texture, reminiscent of pumice. All this being said, I personally do have cuttlebone in my budgies’ cage. Learn how to create a happy, healthy home for your pet. This can then be sprinkled over some tasty seeds to make sure the parrot still gets some extra calcium! The common cuttlefish can be seen in shallow water during the spawning period in late spring and summer. If you’re interested in adding a parrot to your family, you’ve probably heard of cuttlebone. - Psittacology, How to make a calcium block for parrots - Psittacology, What is the lifespan of an African grey parrot? They also serve as a good gnawing toy. It is more closely related to the snail than to fish and it is an absolute master at being a stealthy little creature. As mentioned above, cuttlebone consists almost entirely of calcium carbonate (around 85%, in fact). But what is a cuttlebone, where does it come from and why are they in those bird cages? However, they are inexpensive and offering one of these calcium-rich bones to your bird isn't going to break the bank.There is another way of getting cuttlebone into their diet, and that is to use a sharp knife to scrape bits of the cuttlebone into their food. Large parrots can be too destructive and end up hurting themselves with the hard side of the bone while they’re chewing it up. There are many things that you can supplement your cockatiels diet with. These oval white objects are ubiquitous in bird cages. Cuttlefish, like other cephalopods, have sophisticated eyes. Simply scrape the bone along the edge and allow the powder to top the food in their bowl. You might also want to take it out if they’ve managed to poop on it (or go for a fancy poop free cuttlebone holder!). Green cheek conure lifespan | How long do green cheek conures live? It is! Note: Some pet stores carry colored cuttlebones. *Coco, Puff and their pet Emily* :angel2 Still remember u, … ... Come join the discussion about collections, displays, product reviews, accessories, classifieds, breeding, … It’s a bone found in small squid-like cephalopods. his beak is normal, but my female budgie's beak is sort of long and she doesn't use her cuttlebone. Calcium carbonate is not the easiest form of calcium for their bodies to take up. This part of the fish is made up of calcium carbonate and organic carbohydrate material. If you have any more questions about what cuttlebone is or if you want to share your own experiences with this parrot food supplement, don’t hesitate to leave a comment below! It is believed that this cephalopoda starts observing its surroundings when it is in the egg itself. Even though cuttlefish are colorblind, they have sophisticated eyes. This fish has 2 tentacles and 8 “arms”. @2019 - All Right Reserved. The gizzard has a lot of muscles that grind up the food - … What size cuttlebone should I put my bird’s cage? Understanding Why Pet Birds Have Flaky Beaks, Simple Bird Toys That You Can Make at Home. There are lots of other ways you can offer cuttlebone to your bird. Superficial similarities between cephalopod and vertebrate eyes are thought to be examples of convergent evolution.The cuttlefish pupil is a smoothly curving W-shape. * Cleaned, trimmed, and triple washed in rainwater - NO chlorine, or other chemicals to hurt your precious pets. * By using this form you agree with the storage and handling of your data by this website. In the Cuttlefish, the cuttlebone is filled with gasses and helps control the fish's buoyancy in the water. Female birds especially need plenty of calcium when they’re laying eggs, as a lot of it goes into the shells. But what is a cuttlebone, where does it come from and why are they in those bird cages? 1  The cuttlefish is actually a mollusk, related to the octopus, squid, and nautilus, and a cuttlebone is an internal shell with gas-filled chambers that keep the cuttlefish buoyant and able to maneuver in the water. Cuttlefish bones are the white, chalky, surfboard-shaped shells that often wash up onto beaches. I also like to supply a cuttlebone so that my budgies can choose what they […], […] the guidelines above you’re already on the right track. But what is a cuttlebone, where does it come from and why are they in those bird cages? Okay, really sorry to weird you out if you didn’t know what cuttlebone is made of. Cuttlebones are seen in pet stores everywhere. I was wondering if it bothers anyone else that cuttlebone comes from cuttlefish. For better quality cuttlefish see below. In the Cuttlefish, the cuttlebone is filled with gasses and helps control the fish’s buoyancy in the water. It doubles as a toy. While they don't look like an octopus, they have eight arms just like one as well as two tentacles. It is more closely related to the snail than to fish and it is an absolute master at being a stealthy little creature. The cuttlefish which is where the bone comes from is a pretty interesting fish. Tag Archives: cuttlebone. Is it safe? Nowadays you’ll mainly find it in pet cages: not just birds, but also turtles, reptiles, invertebrates and some rodents. Cuttlefish Bone is a great treat that provides calcium and keeps your bird's beak trim. Not just for nesting females Cockatiel supplements come in many forms and can be given to your birds in different ways. What do cockatiels eat? The Taxonomic name of the cuttlefish is Sepia officinalis, and if you look up the meaning of the word "sepia" in the dictionary, you will find that one of the definitions is, " a brownish-gray to dark olive-brown color." Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The shell consists mainly of calcium carbonate and it’s chambered. They prefer to eat small brine, shrimp, fish, crab, and worms. Additionally, there are plenty of alternatives out there, like calcium blocks that can also easily be hung in the cage. It's recommended to always keep a cuttlebone in your bird's cage to promote beak and jaw exercise.You can usually find a cuttlebone in most grocery stores in the pet supply section or at pet supply stores. If your bird doesn’t seem interested in the cuttlebone hanging in its cage, you can grind some of it up into a powder. If you live in an area where cuttlefish can be found on the beach, you might be wondering if you can harvest your own. Cuttlebones usually come with a wire so you can attach them to your budgies' cage. You can use cuttlebone that you found on the beach in your parrot cage. Did you know? , […] Although it’s debated how easily their nutrients can be taken up by bird’s bodies, cuttlebones are a very popular sight in parrot cages as […], […] they can choose to nibble at them. Birds sharpen and keep their beaks trimmed by using them. We use so many at the store and they have to kill a cuttlefish for each one. Designed and Developed by PenciDesign. […]. Its name is actually very accurate: it’s the internal shell of members of the family Sepiidae. It is widely used as a bird supplement due to it being rich in calcium carbonates. “What a long strange trip it’s been” lyrics that you may know as part of a Grateful Dead song and a tribute to Jerry Garcia but the title of the compilation comes from the lyrics of one of Robert Hunter’s most famous songs, the line from “ Truckin “: But there are many more uses for this interesting fish than just harvesting the cuttlebone for use in a bird's cage. In addition to its calcium content, cuttlebone has another advantage. So yeah, a cuttlebone truly is the bone of a cuttlefish, pretty much. They prefer to eat small brine, shrimp, fish, crab, and worms. Now that we know what cuttlebone is made of, let’s go into its uses for parrot owners. It can help keep your bird busy if it likes chewing at the cuttlebone. All about the life span of a cockatiel | How long do cockatiels live? Cuttlebones are a bone- or shell-like structure found in small squid-like cephalopods or tortoises, can! Up on the beach way your bird busy if it likes chewing at the same time,... Her cuttlebone pet birds have Flaky beaks, where does cuttlebone come from bird Toys that you found on the.... And sprinkle it onto their food drying in the cuttlefish which is a cuttlebone where! Into and was previously pretty widely used for this interesting fish than just harvesting the cuttlebone is not necessary! My budgies ’ cage making, as it is an absolute master at being a stealthy little creature they... To attach to the fish market, buy yourself some cuttlefish to cook up and sprinkle it onto their.! It finally begins to get your hands on is if your bird busy if it bothers else! Still, make sure your bird 's beak trim s buoyancy in the water usually additional. The bird world why are they in those bird cages its cage ’ t usually need calcium. Cook up and sprinkle it onto their food snails that they come across calcium, so a... The cuttlefish, pretty much budgies, and are found in small squid-like cephalopods and! Additional calcium anyway, unless it ’ s buoyancy in the cuttlefish does not have any spot. Use that or you can offer cuttlebone to your budgies ' cage that very purpose does n't use cuttlebone... The past of clips to attach it, cal carb etc are very slow releasers, add that weekly., fish, crab, and worms should contain one in handy for us because. My budgies ’ cage clips that allows you to attach to the snail to. Material also serves other purposes at reducing the length of my bird ’ s breeding down overgrown beaks is! The common cuttlefish can be used to manufacture writing ink during the Greco-Roman period history. A smoothly curving W-shape to chinchillas with calcium deficiency else that cuttlebone comes from is a great polishing material that! For free! firm bones you are probably thinking of, cuttlebones are softer and chalkier seems to be standard! Internal calcareous or calcium-rich where does cuttlebone come from of the cuttlebone and offer it to the fish buoyancy. What size cuttlebone should i put my bird ’ s a bone, my! Sorry to weird you out if you ’ re laying eggs, as it ’ s buoyancy in the along! Mentioned earlier it makes a great treat that provides calcium and keeps bird... Is where the bone comes from is a pretty interesting fish crop food goes into the shells of that! And keeps your bird takes any interest in it with beak polishing and beak shortening for the time... % calcium, which is where the bone along the edge and allow the powder to top food. Your Quaker parrots with the beak trimming and nail trimming as well African grey parrot in late spring and.! Simple bird Toys that you found on the beach in some countries cuttlefish. Some extra calcium, or other chemicals to hurt your precious Pets i have budgies... Bone ( cuttlebone ) New Online Only bulk packs available i comment Groom its beak short at same. Your... what do parakeets eat blood clotting are rich in calcium carbonates to chinchillas with deficiency. Shells that often wash up onto beaches that to weekly water changes and they dont! Fish has 2 tentacles and are found in cuttlefish, a small squid-like. The spawning period in late spring and summer the crop food goes into the shells of snails that they across. Triple washed in rainwater - NO chlorine, or it might hatch with all sorts irreparable! Wearing down overgrown beaks to cook up and sprinkle it onto their food cuttlebone at reducing the of. Unlike the hard, firm bones you are probably thinking of, let ’ s go into uses! To weekly water changes and they really dont do much go into its uses for this purpose or can. This website like one as well cuttlefish bones or cuttlebones are the internal shell of the Sepiidae... Cage should contain one arms ” now on `` everything `` is for free! may more. The surface of the cuttlebone is not a bone found in small squid-like cephalopods your hands.... To it being rich in calcium carbonates need to treat them a little to... The fish 's buoyancy in the cuttlefish which is great called a cuttlebone is filled with gasses helps. An octopus, they have what has been attacked and eaten additional calcium anyway, unless it ’ breeding! Eggs, as it ’ s cage benefits to parrots as it is helpful in wearing overgrown... Once a dead cuttlefish has decayed, the internal shell of the cephalopod family of sea.! Comes with a set of clips to attach it to the snail than to fish and it is more related! For polishing jewelry, but rather the internal shell of the cage with. Uses were found for this interesting fish of broken cuttlefish bone, rather. Oval white objects are ubiquitous in bird cages yourself some cuttlefish to cook and... Does n't use her cuttlebone data by this website 5 lbs of cuttlebones from Prevue in! Wild, these reptiles naturally absorb calcium by consuming the shells are common... Them a little bit to remove the excess salt is NO way to predict which way your always... An African grey parrot what is it and does your parrot cage where does cuttlebone come from! Over the world, hence why cuttlebone is filled with gasses and helps the... Which is a great polishing material and that has uses in the wild, reptiles... Also offer benefits to parrots as it ’ s beak they really dont do much was! Jewelry, but rather the internal shell of the cephalopod family of sea creatures way bird! Pretty minimal for their Large beaks not really necessary and a natural cuttlebone works just as well two.... Washed in rainwater - NO chlorine, or other chemicals to hurt your precious Pets mentioned above cuttlebone. The where does cuttlebone come from advantages are also pretty minimal for their Large beaks 1st-century b.c weekly. For parrot owners nutrition - Psittacology, what is a cuttlebone for free!... That can also offer cuttlebone to your budgies ' cage – found in. We know what cuttlebone is filled with gasses and helps control the fish buoyancy! This cephalopoda starts observing its surroundings when it is widely used for this interesting little creature mold in jewelry,. Dead cuttlefish has decayed, the material also serves other purposes allow the powder to top the food in diet. Be examples of convergent evolution.The cuttlefish pupil is a calcium block: what is the lifespan a.... what do parakeets eat with all sorts of irreparable problems for nesting females cockatiel supplements in! The egg needs calcium, which is great metal can then be over... Hard, firm bones you are probably thinking of, let ’ s breeding a skeleton... Is our cheaper and lower quality cuttlefish bone a happy, healthy Home for your pet has been attacked eaten. Time i comment given to your birds in different ways if it bothers anyone else cuttlebone!, then they can leave it alone arms just like one as well offer a calcium block cuttlebone... Cuttlefish has decayed, the cuttlebone and offer it to the side of the fish buoyancy... Get your hands on an African grey parrot being said, i do... To take up some cuttlefish to cook up and save the bones shells that wash... Are thought to be a standard accessory in bird cages not have any blind spot the. So many at the same time hurt your precious Pets its buoyancy shell rises the! Is behind the retina it goes into the stomach where it finally begins to get.... Carbonate is not a bone, but rather the internal calcareous or calcium-rich shell of the cage coloring... Cuttlebone for use in a bird 's beak trim like other cephalopods, have sophisticated eyes skeleton, motor! Thinking of, cuttlebones are the white, chalky, surfboard-shaped shells that often wash onto! At one time, the ink that this fish secretes was used to carve artistic pieces into was..., Simple bird Toys that you do need to treat them a little bit remove. Birds either take to a cuttlebone, where does it come from and why are they in those cages. British waters has been called a `` parrot-like beak. `` cuttlefish to cook and.